Mass media, Characteristics, Forms of Mass media, Journalism, Public Relations


Mass media refers to a variety of media technologies that reach a large audience through mass communication. The technologies by which this connection is made include a variety of ports.
Broadcast media transmit information electronically through media such as movies, radio, recorded music, or television. Digital media includes both the Internet and mobile communications. Internet media consists of services such as email, social networking sites, websites, online radio and television. Many other mass media have an additional presence on the web, by means such as linking or running TV advertisements online, or distributing QR codes in external or print media to direct mobile users to a website. In this way, they can use the easy access and communication capabilities offered by the Internet, thus facilitating the transmission of information across many different regions of the world simultaneously and at an affordable cost.

External media transmit information via media such as AR advertisements; Billboards. airships; Flying billboards (airplane towing signs); Signs or kiosks placed inside and outside buses, commercial buildings, shops, sports fields, subway cars or trains; Signs; or write. Print media convey information through physical objects, such as books, comics, magazines, newspapers, or brochures. Event organizing and public speaking can also be considered a form of media

Issues with identification

In the late twentieth century, mass media can be categorized into eight media industries: books, Internet, magazines, films, newspapers, radio, recordings, and television. The explosion of digital communication technology in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries has raised the question: What forms of media should be classified as “media”? For example, it is controversial to include mobile phones, computer games (such as MMORPGs), and video games in the definition. In the early 2000s, a classification called the “seven media” came into use. In presentation order, they are:

Printing (books, pamphlets, newspapers, magazines, posters, etc.) from the late 15th century
Recordings (gramophone recordings, magnetic tapes, cassettes, cartridges, CDs, and DVDs) from the late 19th century

Cinema from about 1900
Radio from about 1910
Television from circa 1950
Internet from about 1990
Mobile phones from about 2000
Each mass medium has its own types of content, creative artists, technicians, and business models. For example, the Internet includes blogs, podcasts, websites, and many other technologies that are built on top of the public distribution network. The sixth and seventh media, the Internet, and mobile phones are often collectively referred to as digital media; And fourth and fifth, radio and television, as broadcast media. Some argue that video games have evolved into a distinct mass form of media.

While the phone is a two-way communication device, the media communicates with a large group. In addition, the phone turned into a cell phone with Internet access. The question arises whether this makes mobile phones a collective means or simply a device used to access a collective medium (the Internet). There is currently a system whereby marketers and advertisers can make use of satellites, broadcasting commercials and advertisements directly to mobile phones, without being requested by the phone user. Transferring mass advertising to millions of people is another form of mass communication.

Video games may also evolve into a mass medium. Video games (for example, multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs), such as RuneScape) provide a shared gaming experience to millions of users around the world and convey the same messages and ideologies to all users. Sometimes users share the experience with each other by playing online. However, with the exception of the Internet, it is questionable whether video game players share a common experience when they play the game individually. It is possible to discuss the events of a video game in great detail with a friend who has never played before because the experience is similar for both of them. The question, then, is whether this is a form of mass communication.


Sociologist John Thompson of the University of Cambridge has identified five characteristics of mass communication:
“[C]it ignores both technical and institutional methods of production and distribution” – evidenced throughout the history of mass media, from print to the Internet, each suitable for commercial use
It involves “tokenized commodification” – where the production of materials depends on their ability to manufacture and sell large amounts of work; Where radio stations depend on when they sell advertising, so newspapers also rely on their space for the same reasons “[separate] the contexts between the production and reception of information”
“Its reach those ‘far’ in time and space, compared to the producers”
“Information distribution” – a form of “one-to-many” communication, in which products are mass-produced and disseminated to a large number of audiences
Mass vs. Current and Alternate
The term “media” is sometimes erroneously used as a synonym for “main media”. Mainstream media are distinguished from alternative media by their content and point of view. Alternative media are also “mass media” outlets in the sense that they use technology capable of reaching many people, even if the audience is often smaller than the mainstream.

In common usage, the term “mass” does not indicate that a certain number of individuals receive the products, but rather that the products are available in principle to a group of recipients.

media forms


A family listening to a crystal radio in the 1920s.
Main articles: Radio broadcasting and Television
The sequence of content in a broadcast is called a timeline. With all technological endeavors, a number of technical terms and slang have been developed. Please see the list of broadcasting terms for a glossary of terms used.

Radio and television programs are distributed over highly regulated frequency bands in the United States. This regulation includes determining the bandwidth and range, licensing, types of receivers and transmitters used, and acceptable content.

Cable television is often broadcast simultaneously with radio and television programs, but its audience is more limited. By encoding signals and prompting a cable converter box at individual recipient locations, the cable also enables subscription-based channels and pay-per-view services.

A broadcaster may broadcast several programs simultaneously, through several channels (frequencies), for example BBC One and Two. On the other hand, two or more organizations may share a channel and each use it during a fixed part of the day, such as Cartoon Network/Adult Swim. Digital radio and digital television may also transmit multicast programming, with many channels compressed into a single group.

When broadcasting is done online, the term webcasting is often used. In 2004, a new phenomenon occurred when a number of technologies were combined to produce podcasts. Broadcasting is a means of asynchronous broadcasting/narrow broadcasting. Adam Curry and his associates, Podshow, are major proponents of the podcast.


The term “film” includes motion pictures as individual projects, as well as the field in general. The name comes from photographic film (also known as filmstock), historically the primary medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms for film exist, such as motion picture (or pictures and just “picture”), silver screen, photo shoot, cinema, picture shows, clicks, and most commonly film.

Movies are produced by recording people and things with cameras, or by creating them using animation techniques or special effects. Movies consist of a series of individual frames, but when these images are shown in quick succession, an illusion of movement is created. Flickering is not seen between frames due to an effect known as stabilization of vision, in which the eye retains the visible image for a split second after the source is removed. Also relevant is what causes motion perception: a psychological effect known as beta motion.

Film has emerged as an important art form. They entertain, educate, enlighten and inspire the masses. Any film can become a global attraction, especially with the addition of dubbing or subtitles that translate the original language.

Video Games

Children’s shopping carts with gaming computers.
A video game is a computer-controlled game in which a video display, such as a monitor or television set, is the primary feedback device. The term “computer games” also includes games that display only text or that use other methods, such as sound or vibration, as the primary feedback device. There should always be some type of input device, usually in the form of button/joystick combinations (in arcade games), a keyboard and mouse/trackball combination (computer games), a console (console games), or a combination of any what mentioned before. Also, more esoteric devices were used for input, for example, player movement. There are usually rules and objectives, but in open-ended games, the player may be free to do whatever they like within the confines of the virtual universe.

In common usage, an “arcade game” refers to a game designed to be played in an establishment where patrons pay to play on a per-use basis. “PC game” or “PC game” refers to a game played on a personal computer. “Game console” refers to that which is played on a device specifically designed for such use, while interacting with a standard television set. “video game” (or “video game”) has evolved into a generic term that includes the foregoing along with any game designed for any other device, including, but not limited to, advanced calculators, mobile phones, PDAs, and so on.

Audio recording and reproduction

Sound recording and reproduction is the re-creation of sound or its electrical or mechanical amplification, often as music. This includes the use of audio equipment such as microphones, recording devices, and amplifiers. From the early beginnings of the invention of the phonograph using purely mechanical techniques, the field advanced with the invention of the electrical recording, the mass production of the record 78, the magnetic wire recorder followed by the tape recorder, and the vinyl LP record. The invention of the compact cassette in the 1960s, followed by the Sony Walkman, gave a huge boost to the mass distribution of music recordings, and the invention of digital recording and the compact disc in 1983 led to massive improvements in hardness and quality. The latest developments have been in digital audio players.

An album is a collection of related sound recordings, released together to the public, usually commercial.
The term record album originated from the fact that 78-rpm phonograph disc records were kept together in a book that looked like a photo album. The first set of records to be called “album” was Tchaikovsky’s The Nutcracker, released in April 1909 as a four-disc set by Odeon Records. It retailed for 16 shillings – about £15 in modern currency.

A music video (also promotional) is a short film or video accompanying an entire piece of music, often a song. Modern music videos were created and used primarily as a marketing device intended to promote the sale of music recordings. Although the origins of music videos go back much further than that, they appeared in the 80s, when the Music Television format was based on them. In the 1980s, the term “rock music” was often used to describe this type of entertainment, although the term is no longer used.

Music videos can accommodate all styles of filmmaking, including animation, live-action films, documentaries, and abstract non-fiction films.

Internet (digital media)

The Internet (also known as the “Network” or “Web” less accurately) is a more interactive medium for media, and can be described briefly as a “Network of Networks”. Specifically, it is the publicly available global network of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol (IP). It consists of millions of smaller local, academic, business and government networks, which together carry various information and services, such as e-mail, online chat, file transfer, interconnected web pages and other documents on the World Wide Web.

Contrary to some common uses, the Internet and the World Wide Web are not synonymous: the Internet is a system of interconnected computer networks, associated with copper wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless connections, etc.; The web is the contents, or interconnected documents, linked by hyperlinks and URL addresses. The World Wide Web can be accessed through the Internet, along with many other services including email, file sharing, and other services described below.

Towards the end of the twentieth century, the advent of the World Wide Web marked the first era in which most people could have access to media on a scale comparable to mass media. Anyone with a website has the potential to address a global audience, although the service with high levels of web traffic is still relatively expensive. The advent of peer-to-peer technologies may have begun the process of making the cost of bandwidth manageable. Although a huge amount of information, images, and comments (ie, “content”) are available, it is often difficult to determine the credibility and reliability of the information contained in web pages (in many cases, they are self-published). The invention of the Internet also allowed breaking news stories to reach all parts of the world within minutes. It is often believed that this rapid growth of instant and decentralized communication is likely to change the media and its relationship to society.

Cross-media is the idea of ​​distributing the same message across different media channels. A similar idea is expressed in the news industry as “convergence”. Many authors understand that cross-media publishing is the ability to publish both in print and on the web without the effort of manual conversion. The growing number of wireless devices with conflicting data and screen formats makes it difficult to achieve the goal of “create once and publish many.”

The Internet is quickly becoming a center of media. Everything is available online. Instead of picking up a newspaper, or watching the 10 o’clock news, people can log on to the Internet to get the news they want, when they want it. For example, many workers listen to the internet radio while sitting at their desks.
Even the education system is based on the Internet. Teachers can contact the entire class by sending a single email. They may have web pages where students can get another copy of the class outline or assignments. Some classes have class blogs where students are required to post weekly, with students ranked based on their contributions.

Blogs (weblogs)

Blogging has also become a popular form of media. A blog is a website, usually operated by an individual, with regular entries for comments, descriptions of events, or interactive media such as photos or videos. Entries are most commonly displayed in reverse chronological order, with the most recent posts displayed at the top. Many blogs provide comments or news on a particular topic; Others work as personal online diaries. A typical blog combines text, images, and other graphics with links to related blogs, web pages, and media. Readers’ ability to leave comments in an interactive format is an important part of many blogs. Most blogs are primarily textual, although some focus on art (blog), images (photoblog), graphic blog, videos (vlog), music (mp3 blog), audio (podcasting) are part of a broader network of Social media. Microblogging is another type of blogging that consists of blogs with very short posts.

RSS feeds

RSS is a format for publishing news and the content of news-like sites, including major news sites such as Wired, news-oriented community sites such as Slashdot, and personal blogs. It is a set of feed formats used to publish frequently updated content such as blog entries, news headlines, and podcasts. An RSS document (called a “feed,” “feed,” or “channel”) contains either a summary of content from a linked website or the full text. RSS allows people to keep up to date with websites in an automated way that can be moved to special programs or filtered shows.

Audio Notation (Podcast)

Podcasts are a series of digital media files that are distributed over the Internet using sharing feeds for playback on portable media players and computers. Like broadcasting, the term podcast can refer either to the series of content itself or to the way it is promoted; The latter is also called podcasting. A podcast host or author is often called a podcaster.

mobile (mobile media)

Cell phones were introduced in Japan in 1979 but only became a mass media in 1998 when the first downloadable ringtones were introduced in Finland. Soon most forms of media content were introduced on mobile phones, tablets, and other portable devices, and today the total value of media consumed on mobile vastly exceeds the value of Internet content, amounting to more than $31 billion in 2007 (Informa source). Mobile media content includes more than $8 billion worth of phone music (ringtones, ringtones, truetones, MP3s, karaoke, music videos, music streaming services, etc.); Over $5 billion in mobile games; And various news, entertainment, and advertising services. Mobile books are so popular in Japan that five of the ten bestsellers were originally released as mobile books.

Similar to the Internet, the mobile phone is also an interactive medium, but it has a much wider scope, with the number of mobile phone users reaching 3.3 billion users at the end of 2007 to 1.3 billion Internet users (ITU source). Like internet email, the best mobile app is also personal messaging service, but SMS is used by more than 2.4 billion people. Practically all Internet services and applications exist or have similar cousins ​​on mobile, from search to multiplayer games to virtual worlds to blogging. The mobile phone has many unique advantages that many portable media critics claim make the phone a more powerful means than television or the Internet, starting with the constant and always-connected carrying of the mobile phone. Mobile has the best audience resolution and is the only media with a built-in payment channel available to every user without any credit cards, PayPal accounts, or even an age limit. A mobile phone is often called 7 Mass Medium and either the fourth screen (if you count cinema, TV, and PC screens) or the third screen (if you count TV and PC only).

Print media (newspapers and magazines)

A magazine is a periodical publication containing a variety of articles, generally financed by advertising or purchased by readers.
Journals typically publish weekly, fortnightly, monthly, fortnightly, or quarterly, with a date on the cover prior to the date they were actually published. They are often printed in color on glossy paper and closed with a softshell.

Occupations involving the media

the press
Journalism in the field of collecting, analyzing, verifying, and presenting information regarding current events, trends, issues, and people. Those who practice journalism are known as journalists.
News-oriented journalism is sometimes described as a “first draft of history” (attributed to Phil Graham), because journalists often record important events, producing news articles on short deadlines. While under pressure to be the first to write their stories, media organizations usually edit and proofread their reports prior to publication, adhering to each organization’s standards of accuracy, quality, and style. Many news organizations claim proud traditions of holding government officials and organizations accountable to the public, while media critics have raised questions about the accountability of journalism itself to professional journalism standards.

Public relations

Public relations is the art and science of managing communication between an organization and its key audience to build, manage and maintain its positive image. Examples include:

Companies use marketing public relations to convey information about the products they manufacture or the services they provide to potential customers to support their direct sales efforts. They typically support sales in the short and long term, creating and refining the company’s brand for a strong, ongoing market.
Companies also use public relations as a means of reaching out to legislators and other politicians, in search of favorable tax, regulatory, and other treatment, and they may use public relations to portray themselves as enlightened employers, to support human resource recruitment programs.
Nonprofits, including schools, universities, hospitals, and human and social services agencies, use public relations to support outreach programs, fundraising programs, staff recruitment and increase sponsorship of their services.
Politicians use public relations to attract votes, raise money, and, when they succeed at the polls, promote and defend their service in office, focusing on the next election or, at the end of their careers, their legacy.

The Zubair Museum shows the child’s early printing processes.
Publishing is the industry concerned with the production of literature or information – the activity of making information available to the public. In some cases, the authors may be their publishers.
Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books and newspapers. With the advent of digital information systems and the Internet, the scope of publishing has expanded to include websites, blogs, and the like.

As a business, publishing includes the development, marketing, production, and distribution of newspapers, magazines, books, literary works, musical works, software, and other business that deals with information.

The publication is also important as a legal concept; (1) as a process of giving formal notice to the world of a significant intent, for example, to marry or enter bankruptcy, and; (2) as an essential prerequisite for being able to claim defamation; This means that the alleged defamation must have been published.

software publishing

A software publisher is a publishing company in the software industry between developer and distributor. In some companies, two or all of these three roles may be combined (in fact, they may exist in one person, especially in the case of joint programs).

Software publishers often license software from developers with certain restrictions, such as a time limit or geographic region. License terms vary widely and are usually confidential.

Developers may use publishers to reach larger markets or foreign markets or to avoid focusing on marketing. Or, publishers may use developers to create software to meet market needs identified by the publisher.

Internet-based careers

A YouTuber is anyone who made his or her fame from creating and promoting videos on the public video-sharing site, YouTube. Many YouTube celebrities have made a career out of their sites through sponsorships, advertising, product placement, and network support.


Early woodblock press, photographed 1520.
The history of the media can be traced back to the days when dramas were performed in various ancient cultures. This was the first time a type of media was “broadcast” to a wider audience. The first known dated printed book is the “Diamond Sutra”, printed in China in 868 CE, although the books were apparently printed earlier. The movable clay type was invented in 1041 in China. However, due to the slow spread of literacy among the masses in China, and the relatively high cost of paper there, the first printed medium may have been the popular European prints from about 1400. Although these prints were produced in huge numbers, few at the time Early examples have survived, and even the most famous ones printed before about 1600 have not. The term “media” was coined with the creation of print media, which is famous for being the first example of mass media, as we use this term today. This type of media began in Europe in the Middle Ages.

Johannes Gutenberg’s invention of the printing press allowed the mass production of books to sweep the nation. The first book, the Latin Bible, was printed on a movable press in 1453. The invention of the printing press gave rise to some of the first forms of mass communication, by enabling the widespread dissemination of books and newspapers. larger than previously possible. The invention also changed the way the world received printed materials, although books remained really too expensive to describe as mass media for at least a century afterward. Newspapers have been developing since about 1612, the first example being in English in 1620;  But it took until the nineteenth century to reach an immediate mass audience. The first widely circulated newspapers appeared in London in the early 19th century, such as The Times, made possible by the invention of high-speed rotary steam printing machines, and railways that allowed wide distribution over wide geographical areas. However, the increase in circulation led to a decrease in reactions and interaction on the part of the readers, making newspapers a more one-way medium.

The term “media” came into use in the 1920s. The concept of “media” was generally restricted to print media until the post-World War II period, when radio, television, and video were introduced. Audiovisual facilities became very popular, because they provided information and entertainment, because color and sound engaged viewers/listeners and because it was easier for the general public to passively watch television or listen to the radio than to read actively. Recently, the Internet has become the newest and most popular medium. Information has become easily available through websites and easily accessible through search engines. One can do many activities at the same time, such as playing games, listening to music, and social networking, regardless of the location. While other forms of media are limited in the type of information they can provide, the Internet makes up a large proportion of all human knowledge through things like Google Books. New media include the Internet, mobile phones, blogs, podcasts, and RSS feeds.

During the 20th century, the growth of media was driven by technology, including those that allowed much duplication of materials. Physical copying techniques such as printing, taping, and film duplication allowed books, newspapers, and films to be copied at low prices to huge audiences. Radio and television allowed the electronic transcription of information for the first time. The mass media had the economics of linear reproduction: a single business could make money. An example of the Riel and Neill theorem. It is proportional to the number of copies sold, and as volumes rise, unit costs have fallen, increasing profit margins even more. Huge fortunes were to be made in the media. In a democratic society, the media can serve the electorate on issues related to government entities and corporations (see Media Influence). The concentration of media ownership is seen by some as a threat to democracy.

Mergers and Acquisitions

Between 1985 and 2018, 76,720 deals were announced in the media industry. This amounts to a total value of approximately 5634 billion US dollars. [27] There were three major waves of mergers and acquisitions in the media sector (2000, 2007, and 2015), while the most active year in terms of numbers was 2007 with 3,808 deals. The United States is the most prominent country in media mergers and acquisitions with 41 of the top 50 acquirer deals from the United States.

The biggest deal in history was the acquisition of Time Warner by AOL Inc. For 164.746.86 million US dollars.

Influence and Sociology

The theory of limited effects, originally tested in the 1940s and 1950s, holds that because people typically choose the media they interact with based on what they actually think, the media exert little influence. Class domination theory argues that the media reflect the viewpoint of the minority elite that they control. Cultural theory, developed in the 1980s and 1990s, combines the other two theories with claims that people interact with media to create their own meanings from the images and messages they receive. This theory states that audience members play an active rather than passive role in relation to the media.

There is an article saying that 90 percent of all media networks including broadcasting, programming, video news, sports entertainment and others are owned by six major companies (GE, News-Corp, Disney, Viacom, Time Warner and CBS). According to the Morris Creative Group, these six companies generated more than $200 billion in revenue in 2010. There is more diversity brewing among many companies, but they have recently merged to form an elite that has the power to control storytelling and change people’s beliefs. In the new media-driven age we live in, marketing has more value than ever because of the different ways in which it can be implemented. Advertising can persuade citizens to buy a particular product or make consumers avoid a particular product. The definition of what is accepted by society can be strongly dictated by the media regarding the amount of attention it receives.

The documentary Super Size Me describes how companies like McDonald’s have been sued in the past, with plaintiffs claiming that it was their sharp and subconscious advertising that “forced” them to buy the product. The Barbie and Ken dolls of the 1950s are sometimes cited as the main reason behind the obsession in contemporary society with women being skinny and men lively. After the September 11 attacks, the media gave extensive coverage of the event and revealed the guilt of Osama bin Laden for the attack, information that was told to it by the authorities. This shaped public opinion in support of the War on Terror, and later the War on Iraq. The main concern is that due to the intense power of the media, portraying inaccurate information can lead to massive public anxiety. In his book, Commercializing American Culture, Matthew B.
In 1997, J.R. Finnegan Jr. and K. Viswanath have three main influences or functions of media:

Knowledge gap:

The media influence knowledge gaps due to factors including “the attractiveness of the content, the degree of accessibility of information channels, the amount of social conflict and diversity in society”.

Setting the agenda:
People are influenced in the way they think about issues because of the eclectic nature of what media groups choose for public consumption. After publicly revealing that he had prostate cancer before the New York Senate elections in 2000, Rudolph Giuliani, Mayor of New York City (with the help of the media) sparked great interest in cancer in people’s consciousness. This was because the media began reporting the risks of prostate cancer, which in turn increased public awareness of the disease and the need for screening. This ability for the media to be able to change the way the public thinks and acts has occurred on other occasions. In the mid-1970s, Betty Ford and Happy Rockefeller, wives of the then president and vice president respectively, were both diagnosed with breast cancer. J. J. Davis states that “when risks are highlighted in the media, particularly in great detail, the extent to which the agenda is set is likely to depend on the degree to which a general sense of anger and threat is aroused.” When setting an agenda, framing can be infinitely beneficial for a media organization. Framing includes “taking a leadership role in organizing public discourse on an issue.” The media is influenced by the desire to balance coverage, and the resulting pressures can come from groups with particular political activism and advocacy positions. “Groups, institutions and advocates compete to identify problems, move them onto the public agenda, and define issues symbolically,” says


Finnegan and Viswanath.

Cultivation of Perceptions: The extent to which media exposure shapes audience perceptions over time is known as Cultivation. Television is such a common experience, especially in places like the United States, that it can be described as a “homogeneous factor” (S.W. Littlejohn). However, rather than simply being a consequence of television, the impact is often based on social and economic factors. Prolonged exposure to television or film violence may affect the viewer to the extent that they actively believe that societal violence is a problem, or find it justified instead. The resulting belief is likely to be different depending on where people live.
Since the fifties of the last century, when cinema, radio and television began to be the primary or the only source of information for a larger and larger proportion of the population, these media began to be regarded as central tools of mass control. Until the point where the idea arose that when a country reaches a high level of industrialization, the country itself “belongs to the one who controls communications”.

The media plays an important role in shaping public perceptions about a variety of important issues, both through the information that is distributed through them and through the interpretations they place on that information. They also play a large role in shaping modern culture, by choosing and portraying a particular set of beliefs, values, and traditions (a whole way of life), as truth. That is, by depicting a particular interpretation of reality, they shape reality to be more consistent with that interpretation. The media also plays an important role in the spread of civil unrest activities such as anti-government demonstrations, riots and general strikes. That is, the use of radio and television receivers has made unrest between cities not only due to the geographical location of the cities, but also by proximity within the media distribution networks.

Ethical issues and criticism

The lack of a local or specific topical focus is a common criticism of the media. The news media is often forced to cover national and international news because it has to cater to a broad and relevant demographic. As such, it has to skip many interesting or important local stories because they simply do not interest the vast majority of their viewers. An example given by WiseGeek is that “the population of a community may view their struggle against development as critical, but the story will not attract media attention unless the fight becomes controversial or if precedents of some sort are set”.
The term “mass” indicates that the recipients of media products constitute a vast sea of ​​passive, undistinguished individuals. This is a picture associated with some of the earlier criticisms of “mass culture” and mass society that generally assumed that the development of mass communication had had a largely negative impact on modern social life, creating a kind of gentle and homogeneous culture that entertained individuals unchallenged. With them. However, it has also been observed that interactive digital media challenges the read-only model of earlier broadcast media.

While some refer to the media as “the opiate of the masses”, others see this as a vital aspect of human societies. By understanding the media, one is able to analyze and create a deeper understanding of one’s population and culture. This valuable and powerful ability is one of the reasons for the spread of the field of media studies. As WiseGeek says, “Watching, reading, and interacting with a country’s media can provide clues about how people think, especially if a variety of media sources are viewed.”
Since the 1950s, in countries that have reached a high level of industrialization, the mass media of cinema, radio, and television have played a major role in political power.
Contemporary research shows an increasing level of concentration of media ownership, with many media industries already concentrated and dominated by a small number of companies.


When the study of media began, media was compiled from only mass media which is a media system completely different from the social media empire of twenty-first-century experiences. With this in mind, there is criticism that the media no longer exists, or at least that it no longer exists in the same form as it once did. This original form of media puts filters on what the general public may be exposed to in relation to “the news” which is difficult to do in the social media community.

Theorist Lance Bennett explains that with the exception of some major events in recent history, it is not uncommon for a group large enough to be called a mass, to watch the same news through the same medium of mass production. Bennett’s critique of 21st-century media argues that today it is common for a group of people to receive different stories, from entirely different sources, and thus, media has been reinvented. As discussed above, filters could have been applied to original media when journalists decided what to print or not to print.

Social media is a major contributor to the change from mass media to a new paradigm because through social media, what is mass communication and what is interpersonal communication is a confusing thing. Personal/professional communication is the exchange of information and information in a specific genre. In this type of communication, news/information/opinions are consumed by small groups of people. In contrast, media in its original form is not restricted by genre and is consumed by the masses.

Mass media in Tanzania includes print, radio, television, and the Internet. The “Tanzania Communications Regulatory Act” of 2003 created the Tanzania Communications Regulatory Authority, which oversees broadcast licensing. The Media Council of Tanzania began in 1995

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